Introduction to Organisms
The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista
Members of the microbial kingdom Protista originally were defined by structure (mainly unicellular eukaryotes) and by the difficulty to classify them as either plant, fungi or animal. More recently, the concept of protists was expanded to include certain multicellular organisms such as kelp (Copeland, 1956). Thus defined, members of Protoctista range from microscopic one-celled organisms like dinoflagellates, to multicellular organisms, like seaweed. To untangle this confusing kingdom, biologists now are turning to molecular analysis.
When following the traditional five- or six-kingdom classification, the Protist group contains all eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants or animals. There are unicellular, colonial, and multicellular forms, some of which show cell specialization. Protists groups include both autotrophs and heterotrophs, some of which function as detrivores.
Animal-like groups are often referred to as Protozoans. The term Protozoa dates back to when members of this group were considered "first animals." Plant-like forms are generally called algae.
Traits such as method of motility, presence or absence of a shell, manner of obtaining nutrition, and reproducing, are used to categorize and discuss this diverse group, but it is important to remember that these traits do not necessarily reflect evolutionary history. Recent work suggests that green and red algae are more closely allied with land plants, and that slime molds are more closely allied to animals (Baldauf, et al. 2000).
Keywords: algae | amoeba | autotrophic | heterotrophic | multicellular | protist | Protoctista | protozoan | unicellular
- Baldauf, S. L., Roger, A. J., Wenk-Siefert, I., & Doolittle, W. F. (2000, November 3). A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data. Science, 290, 972-977.
- Copeland, H. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto, CA: Pacific Books.
- Margulis, L. (1990). An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth (3rd ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.
- A micrograph revealed a trophozoite of an Entamoeba histolytica protozoan parasite. Courtesy of the CDC\Dr. N.J. Wheeler, Jr.\336.
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